Info Node: (bash.info)Definitions
Top Basic Shell Features Introduction Back to Software Index
These definitions are used throughout the remainder of this manual.
A family of open system standards based on Unix. Bash is primarily
concerned with the Shell and Utilities portion of the POSIX 1003.1
A space or tab character.
A command that is implemented internally by the shell itself,
rather than by an executable program somewhere in the file system.
A 'word' that performs a control function. It is a 'newline' or
one of the following: '||', '&&', '&', ';', ';;', '|', '(', or ')'.
The value returned by a command to its caller. The value is
restricted to eight bits, so the maximum value is 255.
A unit of text that is the result of one of the shell expansions.
After expansion, when executing a command, the resulting fields are
used as the command name and arguments.
A string of characters used to identify a file.
A set of processes comprising a pipeline, and any processes
descended from it, that are all in the same process group.
A mechanism by which users can selectively stop (suspend) and
restart (resume) execution of processes.
A character that, when unquoted, separates words. A metacharacter
is a 'blank' or one of the following characters: '|', '&', ';',
'(', ')', '<', or '>'.
A 'word' consisting solely of letters, numbers, and underscores,
and beginning with a letter or underscore. 'Name's are used as
shell variable and function names. Also referred to as an
A 'control operator' or a 'redirection operator'. Note:
Redirections, for a list of redirection operators.
A collection of related processes each having the same process
'process group ID'
A unique identifer that represents a 'process group' during its
A 'word' that has a special meaning to the shell. Most reserved
words introduce shell flow control constructs, such as 'for' and
A synonym for 'exit status'.
A mechanism by which a process may be notified by the kernel of an
event occurring in the system.
A shell builtin command that has been classified as special by the
A sequence of characters considered a single unit by the shell. It
is either a 'word' or an 'operator'.
A 'token' that is not an 'operator'.
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